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Encyclopedia of ocean liners - Insight behind the scenes

2022.11.16. 02:36 Doki

As a result of twenty years of research and digital reconstruction activities, Dr. Tamás Balogh - Tom - created the world's first digital ocean liner collection, which contains of about 1 000 digital blueprints of about 600 ocean-going passenger ships from the period between 1830 and 2003. This is not only the only collection of its kind in the world, but also the largest and most accurate collection (with virtually all ocean liners built or planned during this period) based on original shipyard blueprints and models. It is the Encyclopedia of ocean liners which offers a multi-threaded connection to maritime history outreach, written and visual storytelling - by researching the history of ships and their wrecks, publishing books, articles, studies, and by applied and artistic graphics and by supporting film production. What is this exactly and who is behind it? Be an insider!

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I.) About the author:

Dr. Tamás Balogh is a professional lawyer on International Law and Law of the European Union, on social security law and on monument protection and cultural heritage law. He is a shipwreck researcher, maritime history writer, graphic artist, and translator.

Public service activities:

2000-2005: He was the representative social security sector in the delegation negotiating of the bilateral social security agreements signed by Hungary. In 2004 he was a member of the sectoral expert group carrying out legal harmonization activities related to EU accession. He received an award from the Minister of Health for his work.

2005-2013: He was the head of the EU development policy in the health sector, the leading member of the expert group responsible for the planning, EU negotiation and domestic implementation of the HUF 351 billion EU-supported health development program between 2007-2013, and expert in cooperation of cross-border health care.

2014-2018: He prepared the legislation announcing the management plan for the cultural World Heritage sites of Hungary (Hollókő, Tokaj, Pannonhalma, Pécs).

2016-2017: He was the Hungarian delegate of the UNESCO board supervising the implementation of the international convention on the protection of underwater cultural heritage.

2019-2022: He was the leader of the Legal Directorate of the Budapest University of Technology and Economics.

2022- : He is the Chancellor's Commissioner for International and Development Affairs at the Budapest University of Technology and Economics.

Tourism development activities:

2014:, At the initiative of the Hungarian Limes Association, together with Dr. Árpád Karsai – the vice-president of the Association of Tourist Advisors – he made the preliminary plan of the National Limes Cultural Tourism Development Concept, i.e. a coherent cultural and heritage tourism offer connecting the ancient Roman and other attractions along the Hungarian section of the Danube with each other and with the natural heritage of the Danube. More information here and here.

2014-2018: He was a walking guide of Beyond Budapest, a company that organizes thematic city walks, for which he developed a walk that explores the rich nautical heritage of the Hungarian capital, situated on the banks of the Danube River.

Maritime history edutainment activities:

2007- : He has been the president of the Hungarian Society of Maritime History, Modeling and Tradition.

2017-2020: He was the head of the Scientific Committee of the Hungarian Diving Association.

2017-2021: He was member of the Scientific Committee of the International Association of Underwater Activities (CMAS).

2018: The Minister of Defense of Hungary recognized his edutainment work on naval and maritime history by awarding him the highest honor that can be awarded to civilians, the First Grade of the Distinguished Title for National Defense.
 

Translating activities:

In his spare time, Tom translates literature of maritime history and marine inspired poems of Anglo-Saxon poets into Hungarian (the latter published by the Hungarian Litera-Túra Magazin: 1., 2., 3., 4., 5., 6.).

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II.) A profession evoced by the maritime history

As a maritime historian and wreck expert Balogh Tamás (Tom) became captivated by Titanic after seeing the artwork of Willy Stöwer Sinking of the Titanic and he bacame committed for a life to the collection and dissemination of knowledge of maritime history and underwater exploration. Tom is the president of the Hungarian Association of the Maritime History, Modelling and Tadition, and a member of R.M.S. Titanic Hungarian Research Group, he has 20 years of expertise in underwater exploration, in addition to a solid background in history, museums, and outreach through media, film, and publications. Tom is known as a respected, passionate expert who’s prime directive is helping keep maritime history alive and accessible to everyone. 

Explorer: Tom is historical expert of international wreck-diving expeditions.

He took part in the exploration of 16 shipwrecks as a historical and technical expert on Hungarian and international diving expeditions for the research of sunken ships. By finding and processing of archival documentary and images, by planning and analysing of on-site surveys, by exploratory description of the wrecks and wrecksites, and by the preparation of reconstruction drawings, he is active participant of the explorations: in the Adriatic Sea (in case of 6 shipwrecks of the former Austro-Hungarian Navy), in the North Sea (in case of 7 shipwrecks of the Jutland battle), and in the Atlantic (in case of 3 wrecks of the World War I), which included 1 dreadnought-type battleship, 4 battlecruisers, 5 cruisers, 1 destroyer, 1 torpedo boat, 2 submarines and 2 ocean liners. Learn more about his blog posts related to the wreck-diving here

Storyteller: In addition to wreck research, he helps in various ways continue to advance the discipline and bring more history alive for scholars and the public alike.

1) He is the author of several Hungarian and English language maritime history works - independent volumes (8), articles (56) and blog posts (405). His articles published in the Hungarian permutation of the BBC History (10), and the National Geographic Magazine (7) and on the magazine's website (25). Tom’s recent book titles include:

a) In the shadow of the Titanic (in Hungarian) about Dr. Árpád Lengyel (the Hungarian doctor, who was in charge on board of the Carpathia during the rescue of Titanic survivors) together the doctor's granddaughter, published in 2012;

b) Dutch TITANIC – history of the s.s. STATENDAM about the biggest ocean liner ever built for the Netherlands published in 2018 and launched exactly on the day of the centenary of the ship’s sinking in Belfast, in the former headquarter-building of the Harland & Wolff Shipyard (here are some sample pages from the Hungarian version of the book);

His next job is the "Liners - great pictorial encyclopedia of giant steamships" featuring the history of ocean-going passenger steamers from 1838 to 2003. More info - synopsis, some sample pages, an interview and a report - here.

2) He is the director, writer and graphic designer of the Association's 22 exhibitions (4 permanent 18 temporary).

3) During his 20-year career, he has been privileged to host the popular international documentary series the Secrets of the Lost Liners (2022), and Shipwreck Secrets (2019), furthermore the Hungarian miniseries Shipwrecks of the Monarch’s Fleet (2004) and numerous Hungarian documentaries as specialist responsible for historical & engineering analysis, technical drawing & he is a regular participant in the edutainment programs of Hungarian television- and radio channels.

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III.) Digital modelling of ocean liners

Tom – using by cutting edge digital imageing technologies – creates the world's largest and most accurate digital collection of ocean liners and developes provision of services (design, construction, film post-production), that are suitable for the extensive use of the collection, both in filmindustry (commercials, documentary, cinema), both in public display (exhibitions, museum pedagogy).

Until the advent of civil aviation, the only means of transportation between continents on the surface of our planet covered with seas was provided by ships. Of these, high-capacity, fast and most seaworthy ocean-going passenger ships are also of paramount importance, as they were a vital means of communication overseas in times of peace and war. In addition, the most industrially developed nations considered an ocean-going passenger ship built with outstanding expenditure as a floating ambassador for their country, a “product expo” praising the service capacity of national industry, and a measure of technical value, so these ships became national symbols. In view of all this, the history of ocean liners was closely intertwined with the history of mankind, in which these ships sometimes played a decisive role.

As a result of twenty years of research and digital reconstruction, Tom created the world's first comprehensive collection of digital ocean liner profile drawings, which contains 1,000 digital profiles from 1830 to 2003 for 600 ocean liner passenger ships from 100 shipping companies in about 20 countries. It is not just the only such collection in the world, but also the largest and most accurate collection (with the most of all that ocean liners which completed or planned during this period) based on original shipyard blueprints and builder’s models.

The collection reliably serves three types of needs:

Demonstration:

The purpose of the project is the production of ocean liner profile-drawings processed in various ways and designs about historic ocean liners of the 19th and 20th century, to visually illustrate the history of ocean liners, with the help of high-quality - accurate and detailed - blueprints, which are the reminiscents of the simplified and coloured versions of contemporary shipyard blueprints, general arrangement plans and cutaway diagrams, made for representational purposes.

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Publication and applied art:

In the project will also be published a series of profile drawings in a kind of type-book, supplemented with a professional ship biography, and also presenting all the ship’s conversion variants as well. The production of posters (eg thematic billboards showing the evolution of ocean liners, the ocean liners of different shipping companies, or the 14 fourstackers, etc.) is also part of the project. These posters and blueprits can be ordered.

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Support for film production:

The project also aims to offer a service for international film industry with benefits (saving production time and costs) by various 2D animations (1., 2., 3., 4., 5., 6.) and/or 3D ocean liner-models, that can be easily and quickly used in film production as a pre-fabricated element or asets, in the market for feature films, documentaries and commercials, but even in the market for interactive museum animations. The production of post-production, including 3D animations, is typically the biggest item in the film production budget, and the mass availability of uniformly high-quality, yet accurate and authentic representations reduces these costs.

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This service has some potencial benefits as follows:

1) Today's trends in documentary filmmaking confirm that the millennial generation, which makes up a significant proportion of the documentary consumer community, focuses primarily on documentaries that, in addition to a strong narrative, offer an authentic appearance.

2) There are many documentary filmmakers who work with technology and budgets optimalized for making the currently popular micro- and short-documentaries (with mixed quality animations - ordered from stock or created by different teams on a mixed platform - or not use animations at all). However, this production technology cannot guarantee the authenticity of point 1).

3) In comparison, the offered service guarantees a uniform appearance for all ships (for example in entire series). As part of the service, 500 ocean liners are available processed in the same quality (by clicking on the link above, you can access the pdfs that contain the catalog of ocean liners currently available and could be selected for 3D model and animation). Thus, in productions, not only one, but virtually any ocean liner can be displayed relatively quickly in the desired quality (it is currently the largest such collection in the world). And beyond that, of course, Tom is able to make a similar display of any other historic ship (sailing- or steamship, merchant vessel or a warship). Depending on the budget, the production can be combined with a variety of 3D and 2D display options.

4) This avoids the quality risk of buying from stock, the disadvantages of lack of uniformity in multi-team animation. Tom's service guarantees a high-quality uniform look for entire series.

5) All ships in the service can be displayed even in headlines. And the service is also capable of allowing to make spectacular comparisons of the ships (for exemple in various episodes of a certain series).

6) The possibility of use can be supported by flexible tariffs which are able to tolerate to some extent the sensitivity of the productions budget, including the possibility if a film producer does not yet know at the time of the production process how many TV channels will purchase the production.

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Secret of the Lost Liners VI. - AMERICA

2022.09.01. 22:05 Doki

The first episode of the band-new six-part documentary series "Secrets of the Lost Liners" started on Sky/History in the UK on Wednesday 27 July 2022 at 21:00. The six episodes will be shown as follows: NORMANDIE (27.07.2022.), QUEEN ELIZBETH (04.08.2022.), ANDREA DORIA (11.08.2022.), REX (18.08.2022.), CAP ARCONA (25.08.2022.), AMERICA (09.01.2022). International broadcasts are likely to follow later in 2022-2023.

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This is the most extensive and detailed 6 x 1 hour on the subject. Charting a century of history of ocean liners, the most informed experts and authors tell the story how these ships were designed, built and served on the oceans, and how they eventually became victims of war, accident or human error.

On the occasion of the beginning of the presentation of the series, on the day of the screening of each episode, we will publish the background materials summarizing the research related to the history of the ocean liners in the given episode and the preliminary plans made for the animations to be shown in the series, both prepared by the president of our association, Dr. Tamás Balogh, who worked as animation director, responsible for the design and production of the technical animations presented in the series.

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The background material on the historical research of the American ocean liner AMERICA (1939-1994) featured in the sixth episode can be downloaded here.

The uncut version of the animation draft for the AMERICA episode can be downloaded here.

It would be great if you like the article and pictures shared. If you are interested in the works of the author, you can find more information about the author and his work on the Encyclopedia of Ocean Liners Fb-page.

If you would like to share the pictures, please do so by always mentioning the artist's name in a credit in your posts. Thank You!

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Címkék: balogh tamás tit hajózástörténeti modellező és hagyományőrző egyesület Ocean liners Encyclopedia of ocean liners Secret of the Lost Liners

National Geographic Magazine reports on the secrets of LUSITANIA

2022.08.30. 09:40 Doki

The remains of the British giant steamer LUSITANIA, resting in the Atlantic Ocean, were visited by the first expedition, which included both German and Hungarian members between July 6-14, 2022, of which members for the first time managed to get into the No. 1. boiler room of the ship and explore it thoroughly. On this occasion, the president of our association Dr. Tamás Balogh, who participated in the expedition by evaluating the underwater photoes and footage made by the divers, wrote an article, which can now be read on the website of the Hungarian edition of the National Geographic Magazine.

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Fig. 1: LUSITANIA is on the cover.


An article summarizing the latest research results is available
in Hungarian here
in English here.


Below we share some drawings made by hand on site during the expedition, which show the state of the wreck in 1915 immediately after the sinking, and today, 2022, of the stern of the ship, which was the research area of ​​the first half of the 7-day expedition.

 

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Fig. 2: The stern of the LUSITANIA on the seabed as seen from the boat deck in 1915 (above) and 2022 (below). Drawing by Dr. Tamás Balogh © 2022.

 

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Fig. 3: The stern of the LUSITANIA on the seabed as seen from the bottom of the ship in 1915 (above) and 2022 (below). Drawing by Dr. Tamás Balogh © 2022.

 

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Fig. 4: An overview of the wreckage of the LUSITANIA seen from the bow in 2022. Drawing by Dr. Tamás Balogh © 2022.

 

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Fig. 5: The points visited by the expedition on the wrecks of the LUSITANIA. Drawing by Dr. Tamás Balogh © 2022.


It would be great if you like the article and pictures shared. If you are interested in the works of the author, you can find more information about the author and his work on the Encyclopedia of Ocean Liners Fb-page.

If you would like to share the pictures, please do so by always mentioning the artist's name in a credit in your posts. Thank You!

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Címkék: underwater cultural heritage balogh tamás wreck diving RMS Lusitania Ocean liners Encyclopedia of ocean liners

Secret of the Lost Liners V. - CAP ARCONA

2022.08.25. 22:05 Doki

The first episode of the band-new six-part documentary series "Secrets of the Lost Liners" started on Sky/History in the UK on Wednesday 27 July 2022 at 21:00. The six episodes will be shown as follows: NORMANDIE (27.07.2022.), QUEEN ELIZBETH (04.08.2022.), ANDREA DORIA (11.08.2022.), REX (18.08.2022.), CAP ARCONA (25.08.2022.), AMERICA (09.01.2022). International broadcasts are likely to follow later in 2022-2023.

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This is the most extensive and detailed 6 x 1 hour on the subject. Charting a century of history of ocean liners, the most informed experts and authors tell the story how these ships were designed, built and served on the oceans, and how they eventually became victims of war, accident or human error.

On the occasion of the beginning of the presentation of the series, on the day of the screening of each episode, we will publish the background materials summarizing the research related to the history of the ocean liners in the given episode and the preliminary plans made for the animations to be shown in the series, both prepared by the president of our association, Dr. Tamás Balogh, who worked as animation director, responsible for the design and production of the technical animations presented in the series.

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The background material on the historical research of the German ocean liner CAP ARCONA (1927-1945) featured in the fifth episode can be downloaded here.

The uncut version of the animation draft for the CAP ARCONA episode can be downloaded here.

It would be great if you like the article and pictures shared. If you are interested in the works of the author, you can find more information about the author and his work on the Encyclopedia of Ocean Liners Fb-page.

If you would like to share the pictures, please do so by always mentioning the artist's name in a credit in your posts. Thank You!

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Címkék: balogh tamás tit hajózástörténeti modellező és hagyományőrző egyesület Ocean liners Encyclopedia of ocean liners Secret of the Lost Liners

Secret of the Lost Liners IV. - REX

2022.08.18. 22:02 Doki

The first episode of the band-new six-part documentary series "Secrets of the Lost Liners" started on Sky/History in the UK on Wednesday 27 July 2022 at 21:00. The six episodes will be shown as follows: NORMANDIE (27.07.2022.), QUEEN ELIZBETH (04.08.2022.), ANDREA DORIA (11.08.2022.), REX (18.08.2022.), CAP ARCONA (25.08.2022.), AMERICA (09.01.2022). International broadcasts are likely to follow later in 2022-2023.

This is the most extensive and detailed 6 x 1 hour on the subject. Charting a century of history of ocean liners, the most informed experts and authors tell the story how these ships were designed, built and served on the oceans, and how they eventually became victims of war, accident or human error.

On the occasion of the beginning of the presentation of the series, on the day of the screening of each episode, we will publish the background materials summarizing the research related to the history of the ocean liners in the given episode and the preliminary plans made for the animations to be shown in the series, both prepared by the president of our association, Dr. Tamás Balogh, who worked as animation director, responsible for the design and production of the technical animations presented in the series.

The background material on the historical research of the Italian ocean liner REX (1931-1944) featured in the fourth episode can be downloaded here.

The uncut version of the animation draft for the REX episode can be downloaded here.

It would be great if you like the article and pictures shared. If you are interested in the works of the author, you can find more information about the author and his work on the Encyclopedia of Ocean Liners Fb-page.

If you would like to share the pictures, please do so by always mentioning the artist's name in a credit in your posts. Thank You!

Szólj hozzá!

Címkék: balogh tamás tit hajózástörténeti modellező és hagyományőrző egyesület Ocean liners Encyclopedia of ocean liners Secret of the Lost Liners

Secret of the Lost Liners III. - ANREA DORIA

2022.08.11. 22:02 Doki

The first episode of the band-new six-part documentary series "Secrets of the Lost Liners" started on Sky/History in the UK on Wednesday 27 July 2022 at 21:00. The six episodes will be shown as follows: NORMANDIE (27.07.2022.), QUEEN ELIZBETH (04.08.2022.), ANDREA DORIA (11.08.2022.), REX (18.08.2022.), CAP ARCONA (25.08.2022.), AMERICA (09.01.2022). International broadcasts are likely to follow later in 2022-2023.

imdb.jpg

This is the most extensive and detailed 6 x 1 hour on the subject. Charting a century of history of ocean liners, the most informed experts and authors tell the story how these ships were designed, built and served on the oceans, and how they eventually became victims of war, accident or human error.

On the occasion of the beginning of the presentation of the series, on the day of the screening of each episode, we will publish the background materials summarizing the research related to the history of the ocean liners in the given episode and the preliminary plans made for the animations to be shown in the series, both prepared by the president of our association, Dr. Tamás Balogh, who worked as animation director, responsible for the design and production of the technical animations presented in the series.

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The background material on the historical research of the Italian ocean liner ANREA DORIA (1951-1956) featured in the first episode can be downloaded here.

The uncut version of the animation draft for the ANREA DORIA episode can be downloaded here.

It would be great if you like the article and pictures shared. If you are interested in the works of the author, you can find more information about the author and his work on the Encyclopedia of Ocean Liners Fb-page.

If you would like to share the pictures, please do so by always mentioning the artist's name in a credit in your posts. Thank You!

009_logo_jndigo_blue.jpg

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Címkék: balogh tamás tit hajózástörténeti modellező és hagyományőrző egyesület Ocean liners Encyclopedia of ocean liners Secret of the Lost Liners

Secret of the Lost Liners II. - QUEEN ELIZABETH

2022.08.04. 22:02 Doki

The first episode of the band-new six-part documentary series "Secrets of the Lost Liners" started on Sky/History in the UK on Wednesday 27 July 2022 at 21:00. The six episodes will be shown as follows: NORMANDIE (27.07.2022.), QUEEN ELIZBETH (04.08.2022.), ANDREA DORIA (11.08.2022.), REX (18.08.2022.), CAP ARCONA (25.08.2022.), AMERICA (09.01.2022). International broadcasts are likely to follow later in 2022-2023.

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This is the most extensive and detailed 6 x 1 hour on the subject. Charting a century of history of ocean liners, the most informed experts and authors tell the story how these ships were designed, built and served on the oceans, and how they eventually became victims of war, accident or human error.

On the occasion of the beginning of the presentation of the series, on the day of the screening of each episode, we will publish the background materials summarizing the research related to the history of the ocean liners in the given episode and the preliminary plans made for the animations to be shown in the series, both prepared by the president of our association, Dr. Tamás Balogh, who worked as animation director, responsible for the design and production of the technical animations presented in the series.

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The background material on the historical research of the French ocean liner NORMANDIE (1932-1942/48) featured in the first episode can be downloaded here.

The uncut version of the animation draft for the QUEEN ELIZABETH episode can be downloaded here.

It would be great if you like the article and pictures shared. If you are interested in the works of the author, you can find more information about the author and his work on the Encyclopedia of Ocean Liners Fb-page.

If you would like to share the pictures, please do so by always mentioning the artist's name in a credit in your posts. Thank You!

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Szólj hozzá!

Címkék: tit hajózástörténeti modellező és hagyományőrző egyesület balogh tamas Ocean liners Encyclopedia of ocean liners Secret of the Lost Liners

Secret of the Lost Liners I. - NORMANDIE

2022.08.03. 13:14 Doki

The first episode of the band-new six-part documentary series "Secrets of the Lost Liners" started on Sky/History in the UK on Wednesday 27 July 2022 at 21:00. The six episodes will be shown as follows: NORMANDIE (27.07.2022.), QUEEN ELIZBETH (04.08.2022.), ANDREA DORIA (11.08.2022.), REX (18.08.2022.), CAP ARCONA (25.08.2022.), AMERICA (09.01.2022). International broadcasts are likely to follow later in 2022-2023.

imdb.jpg

This is the most extensive and detailed 6 x 1 hour on the subject. Charting a century of history of ocean liners, the most informed experts and authors tell the story how these ships were designed, built and served on the oceans, and how they eventually became victims of war, accident or human error.

On the occasion of the beginning of the presentation of the series, on the day of the screening of each episode, we will publish the background materials summarizing the research related to the history of the ocean liners in the given episode and the preliminary plans made for the animations to be shown in the series, both prepared by the president of our association, Dr. Tamás Balogh, who worked as animation director, responsible for the design and production of the technical animations presented in the series.

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The background material on the historical research of the French ocean liner NORMANDIE (1932-1942/48) featured in the first episode can be downloaded here.

The uncut version of the animation draft for the NORMANDIE episode can be downloaded here.

It would be great if you like the article and pictures shared. If you are interested in the works of the author, you can find more information about the author and his work on the Encyclopedia of Ocean Liners Fb-page.

If you would like to share the pictures, please do so by always mentioning the artist's name in a credit in your posts. Thank You!

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Szólj hozzá!

Címkék: balogh tamás tit hajózástörténeti modellező és hagyományőrző egyesület Ocean liners Encyclopedia of ocean liners Secret of the Lost Liners

A look at the drawing office - a documentary animation of ocean liners

2022.04.11. 13:02 Doki

On April 1, 2021, Max Barber, the creative director of London-based Born This Way Media Ltd., asked Dr. Tamás Balogh, a maritime historian, wreck researcher and author of the Encyclopedia of Ocean Liners, whether he join to the production of a new documentary series with six 60 minute-episodes, which has just entered the pre-production phase with the working title “Lost Lines - Palaces on the Ocean Floor”. Tamás Balogh joined the project as specialist of historical and engineering analysis, as well as the technical drawings and design, the details of which he gives an insight into below. Those interested can find out about the content of each episode and the results of the historical background research that forms the basis of the script, as well as the plans used to create the visual world of the film series, at the following links: Ep1, Ep2, Ep3, Ep4, Ep5, Ep6

 

I.) What is the series about and how was it created?

When most people hear the word “ocean liner,” TITANIC comes to mind. However, eventually released as “Secrets of The Lost Liners,” the docmentary seeks to free the category from the shadow of this single ship and provide a credible picture of the design, services, and loss of the world’s largest ocean liners as a series of in-depth maritime history. The series shows thus the most famous trans-oceanic passenger ships - the CAP ARCONA (1927-1945), the NORMANDIE (1932-1948), the REX (1931-1944), the QUEEN ELIZABETH ( 1938-1972), AMERICA (1939-1994) and ANDREA DORIA (1951-1956) - that have sunk in the last 100 years as a result of war, accident or human error, and in addition to the historical chronology of events, the series give an overwiew about the evolution of ship-design and safety systems.

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Fig. 1: The preview of the series and the first episode can be viewed here.

 

The series have been the result of a major transformation in the television  market from June 2020 to November 2021, when Arrow Media of the United States created a new platform for documentaries and content providers in the United States and the United Kingdom, and Herbert L. Kloiber of Night Train Media in Germany has acquired British BossaNova Media Ltd, a UK television rights distributor, co-producer, co-developer and commissioner of television works. In collaboration with the two of them, they created the acquisition fund, which is now creating the second major series of documentaries. As part of this series, the first 6 episodes of “Secrets of a Lost Liners” have been created, followed by further episodes.

The team of creators formed by the British Content Kings Ltd. Production (a group of leading companies, independent creators of TV and multi platform programming experts), and colleagues of the Born This Way Media Ltd,  - producers and directors Jason Davidson and Peter Roch , and co-producer Max Barber - who created for, among others: the History Channel include BBC, ITV, C4, Channel 5 , Sky, FOX, NBC, Paramount, National Geographic, Facebook Watch, Netflix and YouTube Originals.

 

II.) Why and how had been managed to get involved in the work as a Hungarian?

As Max Barber learned of Tamás Balogh’s project to show the history of ocean liners, which resulted in the creation of the world’s largest collection of digital ship profiles, he assumed the creator might be able to get involved in filmmaking.

He hit the nail on the head: after agreeing on the details - abouth exactly what is needed for the production - Tamás Balogh was happy to say yes to the honorable request, after all as the result of his work 500 ocean liners - built between 1830 and 2003 by 100 shipping companies from about 20 countries - were digitally formed. In addition he processed the preliminary plans in the case of 12 ships from 7 shipping companies in 6 countries, and also drew up 2 ships which, although construction had begun but were never completed, and 3 which had been converted into warships. Finally, he produced drawings of 27 ships commissioned by 17 shipping companies from 7 countries, the construction of which was never started.

This work serves several purposes at once. On the one hand, as part of its general dissemination objectives, it contributes to the publication of a large-scale encyclopedia of the history of ocean liners and to the organization of various exhibitions on ocean-going passenger ships, providing the necessary 2D graphic representation. On the other hand, it was created specifically to support the authentic and detailed display of ocean liners in various film productions by the 3D vizualization of ships.

This collection assisted in making the most recent work of the director Ildikó Enyedi which is entitled “The Story of My Wife”, which won the jury prize at the Otranto Film Festival in 2021, and additionally was nominated for a Palm d'Or Award at the Cannes Film Festival, and for Sydney Film Prize at the Sydney Film Festival in 2021, and for Audience Award at the Kerala International Film Festival and a Best Feature Award at the Zsigmond Vilmos Festival in 2022. The ships in the film were designed by Tamás Balogh and brought to life by the staff of the KGB Studio under the leadership of Béla Klingl. Details of the design process can be found here.

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Fig. 2: An ocean liner designed by Tamás Balogh in one of the scenes in the film.

 

The uniquely huge and accurate digital database provided the right basis, which, together with previous references, enabled the artist to participate in the creative process as a Hungarian - together with Benett Gyurik,  animator of the technical drawings, and Péter Könczöl post-production supervisor - for a film series in which he was able to work with the world's most renowned experts and researchers in the history of ocean liners. The list of contributors in the film series includes the names such as Mark Chirnside of Britain, or Dr. Stephen Payne OBE who is the designer of the only real ocean liner on the world at this time, the QUEEN MARY 2. The quality of the film series is revealed by the fact that in addition to the best experts, the richest public collections, (including the National Archives of the United States and the Library of Congress, the Royal Institute of Naval Engineers, and the archives of the French Line) have been provided their collection for the production.

 

III.) How was the digital profile collection created?

Tamás Balogh became a lover of ocean liners as a child, effect of "The Great Book of Ships" written by Imre Marjai (founder the Association which led by him now), and the image of the sinking TITANIC in that book, painted by Willy Stöwer, and began making drawings of various types of ships, including ocean liners as well.

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Fig. 3: Imre Marjai: The Great Book of Ships (Móra Publishing House, Budapest, 1981). On the left is the author’s own drawing of the German liner DEUTSCHLAND, and on the right is a painting by Willy Stöwer of the TITANIC disaster.

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Fig. 4: The KAISER WILHELM II ocean liner. The colored pen drawing in the style of Imre Marjai (1912-2005) of Hungary and Francis Osborn Braynard (1916-2007) of America is the work of Dr. Tamás Balogh.

 

However, in addition to the perspective drawings depicting the ships, numerous side and top view drawings have also been made to compare the sizes of different ships or to analyze some of their details.

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Fig. 5: Sketches which help define terms of proportions and details to find way during the later creative activity  (Dr. Tamás Balogh).

 

It all starts with sketches like this. They help to engrave the form deep into the mind, while also raising awareness of the details which have not yet been thoroughly learned, so more information needs to be obtained about them.

This is followed by the collection of missing information, which can sometimes take years. After all, it is necessary to visit the archives preserving the original plans of the ship, the museums presenting the builder's models and to research as many contemporary photographs and publications as possible, which can give a credible presentation of the details in question. Drawing can only begin after this, based on the information gathered from the documents used as a source. So it is clear that countless sources help clarify all small parts of the ships, down to the most magnute details, until a profile drawing can be made.

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Fig. 6: Production and sources of digital profiles from shipyard documents and bilder's models to archive photos (Dr. Tamás Balogh).

 

IV.) How was animation made from the digital plans?

"Secrets of Lost Liners" documentary production was in the pre-production stage when Tamás Balogh were invited (pre-production is the work done on a film before full-scale production begins, such as the script, casting, location scouting, equipment and crew, and the shot list, i.e. it is the planning stage). Thus, Tamás Balogh had enough time to design the visual world and the animation elements to be presented for each of the 6 episodes.

It soon became clear that directors and producers were not interested in using CGI produced using 3D models, so they opted for 2D animations instead. In line with this, Tamás Balogh built the entire visual world by analogy with the making of technical drawings, in which the individual ships were placed into a gridbox (in front of a lattice background) evoking the added lines of section paper used by engineers, creating the optical illusion of a three-dimensional space by this way. A set of three plan sheets was prepared for each vessel, which included the body plan (together with the half-breadth plan, sheer-plan and rigging plan), general arrangement plan (with cross- and longitudinal sections), and as well as the paint scheme.

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Fig. 7: Digital blueprints and longitudinal section for the episode about the ocean liner NORMANDIE  (Dr. Tamás Balogh). Further still images from the planning periode of the creative work can be seen here.

 

These formed the basic elements, which then made motions during the animation. The sequence of the animation scenes was entirely designed by Dr. Tamás Balogh, who also wrote the screenplay for the scenes containing the animations. The directors of the series gave a completely free hand to this, their instructions did not restrict the creative process.

The preparation of the scenarios was preceded by a thorough analysis of the history of the ships presented in each episode, extensive archival research, including the original records of official investigations into the shipwreck, so that those interested could see in the animations exactly that,, what which and how happened actually.

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Fig. 8: An animation of the destruction of NORMANDIE accompanies the agony of the ship from the ignition of the fire trough its spread on decks, to the stages of extinguishing the fire and to the capsizing of the ship due to asymmetrical flooding with fire water (Dr. Tamás Balogh).

The directors did not intervene in this work process at all - only after watching the animations made by the Hungarian team, commenting before incorporating them into each episode of the film series - in order to signalize minor modifications which were necessary for use, but apart from these, the animations were accepted, essentially without change.

This - in addition to the research (that forms the basis of the animations), the animation script and the recognition of the quality of the design - is primarily praises the work of Benett Gyurik, who worked as an animator, and Péter Könczöl, who was responsible for quality assurance.

The six episodes of the first season of the series will begin airing in the spring of 2022 on the British program of the History Channel.

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At the end of the joint work, Max Barber acknowledged the quality of our work with a reference letter, responding by this way to the gratitude and joy we felt during the entire periode of the preparation for being able to participate in the project.

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It would be great if you like the article and pictures shared. If you are interested in the works of the author, you can find more information about the author and his work on the Encyclopedia of Ocean Liners Fb-page.

If you would like to share the pictures, please do so by always mentioning the artist's name in a credit in your posts. Thank You!

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Szólj hozzá!

Címkék: tit hajózástörténeti modellező és hagyományőrző egyesület hajózástörténeti tagozat balogh tamas Ocean liners Encyclopedia of ocean liners Secret of the Lost Liners

Fourth funnel of OLYMPIC-class liners

2022.02.12. 22:52 Doki

With regard to ocean liners built with many funnels, it is widely believed that in older times many funnels were needed only because the poor efficiency of early boilers required this. However, there are many examples of large numbers of funnels being used even after they were no longer absolutely necessary due to the development of boilers. In the present study, we recall these examples.

Introduction:

The silhouette of the ships has been defined for centuries by a plethora of high masts and sails, making it recognizable from afar. As steam propulsion gained more and more ground in ocean-going shipping, the masts and sails disappeared and were gradually replaced by ships that were emitting dense smoke and soot, or just friendly white steam. Finally the thin and tall, or even thick and squat funnels, which lined up on upper deck of the huge passenger liners, had became characteristic hallmarks, just on the same way as the most striking element of the human face is the nose.

A total of only 14 four-funnelled ocean liners have been built in the history of shipping, although the GREAT EASTERN is sometimes listed here, but it was originally a five-stacker and was only converted to a four-funnelled in cable-laying period of it's service time. However, each of them did not really need four funnels, including the White Star Line's famous OLYMPIC-class trio (OLYMPIC, TITANIC, GIGANTIC - later BRITANNIC II).

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Fig. 1.: That 14 four-funnel ocean liners which served in shipping companies of different nations through the maritime history. (created by Dr. Tamás Balogh).

 

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Fig. 2. and 3.: First four-funnelled ships were warships: the H.M.S. TERRIBLE (1845-1879) the largest steam-powered wooden paddle wheel frigate built for the Royal Navy, and the U.S.S. WAMPANOAG (1864-1885), a screw frigatedesigned to be the fastest in the world, were intended for use in hit-and-run operations against British ports and commerce in the event of war (this type of warships widely known as cruisers later). The WAMPANOAG was a speed-recorder of the age with it's18 knots. (Source: to the TERRIBLE here, to the WAMPANOAG here and here.)

 

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Fig. 4., 5., 6., 7., 8. and 9.: First four-funnelled civilian ships were was the iron paddle-steamers of the ULSTER-class which performed at a speed of 14 knots - ULSTER (1860-1897), MUNSTER (1860-1896), LEINSTER (1860-1896), CONNAUGHT (1860-1897) - built by the Laird's ship builders of Birkenhead for the City of Dublin Steam Pocket Co., and the BEN-MY-CHREE (1875-1906) built by Barrow Shipbuilding Co. for Isle of Man Steam Packet Company.

 

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Fig. 10., 11. and 12.: Plan and builder's model of the very first four-funnelled ocean liner from 1890. A German engineer employed by Fairfield Shipbuildingand Engineering Company, in Govan, Scotland, Robert Zimmermann, made for GUION LINE a new design for their new record breaker. Stephen Barker Guion (1820–1885) has died, and the then financial instable line, transformed into an incorporation, tried to get a new record vessel after OREGON went back to the builder, who sold it to CUNARD. The newbuild contract never materialized. Zimmermann went back to Germany and seven years later the first four-funnelled ocean liner came into service under German flag.


In the present study, we are looking for an answer to what has led designers to use such components, which are indifferent to the ship's operability, and that ships with dummy funnels, especially those in the OLYMPIC-class, were really only self-serving results of designer's or customer's arbitrary, without any rationate and practical function?

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Fig. 13.: Boiler room and fuunnel-arrangement of the famous GREAT EASTERN 1858-1890 (Source: Library of Congress).

 

I.) On the practical and aesthetic significance of funnels:

The primary purpose of funnel(s) on steamships is to remove smoke (and smoke gases), heat and excess steam from the boiler(s) located down, in the boiler room(s). As the size of ocean liners increased, more and more boilers were used.

The boilers were connected directly to the funnels in the middle of the 19th century. It was the so-called simple smoke-exhausting system. However, as the number of boilers increased, smoke-gas exhausting required more and more differentiated technical solutions, since it was also necessary to find a way to connect the flue pipes of those boilers which were located further from the funnel uptakes (had to abandon those previous solution, according to which 1-2, or maximum 4 boilers standing under a certain funnel are connected into the same funnel uptake, since an unlimited number of funnels could not be placed on the upper deck, if passengers should have accommodated too).

The problem is well illustrated by the fact that the GREAT EASTERN (which was the largest ship in the world for 40 years, and had fundamentally influenced the mindset of designers for decades), had only 10 boilers initially with 5, then (after reducing the number of boilers) with 4 functioning funnels, but the ships of the OLYMPIC-class had 29 boilers per ship with 3 funnels! The technical task to be solved was therefore to divert the combustion products of the boilers located further away from the funnel-uptakes to the funnels as well. In doing so, the horizontal sections had to be avoided, which would have led to a stagnation of the flow of flue gases, a cessation of ventilation, and possibly a return to the combustion chamber (thus reducing the efficiency of the combustion).

The solution was the development of a complex boiler exhaust assembly system for boilers in the last decade of the 19th and the first of the 20th century. This is consisted of two basic structural elements, between the boilers in the bottom of the vessel and the funnels on the upper deck: (1) special-shaped ventillation shafts (or boiler uptakes) which connect gas exit flanges on the upper part of boilers with the lower part of the funnel uptakes, and (2) the actual vertical funnel -or smoke shafts (i.e. funnel uptakes).

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Figs. 14. and 15.: GREAT EASTERN’s simple and OLYMPI’s complex boiler exhaust assembly system (blue: boiler, green: boiler uptakes, red: funnel uptakes). (Source: Science Museum and Bruce Beveridge)

 

By the end of the 19th century, the long rectangular, box-shaped (so-called locomotive) boilers used in steam locomotives had been replaced by cylindrical boilers for ships. According to the widespread practice, a maximum of two rows of single- or double-ended boilers (which had fireplaces at both ends, ie heated from both sides) were connected to one funnel with 3-5 boilers per row. Depending on the number of boilers and the size of the ships, this solution was first used by the Germans to build a four-funnelled ocean liner, which was named KAISER WILHELM der GROSSE (1897-1914). In Germany, it became model of an ocean liner-series (owned by Norddeutscher Lloyd, which built 3 or more ships based on it's plans, but even the great rival HAPAG - Hamburg-Amerikanische Paketafahrt Aktiengesellschaft - used the plans of this ship to build a fast steamer called DEUTSCHLAND).

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Figs. 16., 17. and 18.: Boiler- and funnel-arrrangement of KAISER WILHELM der GROSSE, its sister ship, KRONPRINZ WILHELM (above) and DEUTSCHLAND (middle) and KAISER WILHELM II and its sister ship, KRONZPRINZESSIN CECILIE (below). (Source: Collection of Dr. Tamás Balogh.)

 

In the case of German ships, however, the number of funnels has clearly been adapted to aspects other than technical necessity. In their case, unlike the practice of the time, there were not 2-2 rows of single- or double-ended boilers connected to the funnels, but fewer!

1) In the case of KAISER WILHELM der GROSSE (and its sister ship), only 1-1 rows of double-ended boilers were connected to 3 of the 4 funnels (2 rows of boilers were connected only to the last last funnel, but into one of these rows only single-ended boilers installed).

2) In the case of DEUSCHLAND, although 2-2 rows of boilers were already connected to all 4 funnels, there was always only single-ended boilers in one row.

3) Finally, in the case of KAISER WILHELM II (and its sister ship), there was again only one row of double-ended boilers under 1 of the 4 funnels, while in one of each rows of boilers under the other funnels contained only single-ended boilers.

In other words, while it was already possible at that time to connect 2 rows of double-ended boilers to 1 funnel (with 3-5 boilers per row), only half of this amount (up to one and a half times) was connected to 1-1 funnels on German ships. That is, the flue gas extraction of the boilers - if all the possibilities provided by the technical standards of the age were used to the maximum - could have been solved with fewer funnels! In light of this, the question may arise: what justified this type of funnel-arrangement? The answer is simple: advertising!

By the first years of the 20th century, the market for transoceanic passenger taffic had changed significantly. The transport of masses of emigrants from Europe to America from the second half of the 19th century onwards, more and more small and medium-sized European shipping companies were set up. Their presence was a challenge for the large national shipping companies, regarding they ordered far more ships than ever before, while - in the supply market - ticket prices were falling consequently. In order to stay afloat, companies have been lowering their prices and relentlessly cutting tariffs to secure a place in the competition. Thus, in many cases, they did not even generate enough revenue for the maintainance costs of their ships, let alone pay dividends to their shareholders.

A typical case of absorption was recognized by a U.S. financier, John Pierpoint Morgan, who – with the transformation of the International Navigation Co., established in 1871 to merge U.S. transatlantic shipping companies with strong financial support from the Pennsylvania Railroad Company and various banks – acquired shares in the largest European shipping companies (including the English White Star Line) by 1902, and has entered into a co-operation agreement (we would now say a market-sharing agreement) with the German HAPAG and Norddeutscher Lloyd. The International Mercantile Marine Co., which was formed at this time, has since then rationalized the shipbuilding programs of its member companies, but until that the competition was almost unrestricted and ruthless.

In this situation, all that mattered was for the companies to catch passengers and persuade them to choose their ships for the transatlantic crossing rather than ships of the rival companies. As the 5-7 day voyage was still one of the most dangerous modes of travel at the time (the entry "disappeared at sea" was in too many registers), safety, speed and strength were those primary considerations for the passengers for their decisions. So the German designers set out to design ships that, with their appearance, suggest safety, speed and strength. When German ships actually won one by one the award for fastest Atlantic crossing - the famous Blue Ribbon - four funnel, which originally was just a marketing trick, became a brand and a symbol of speed and safety. Therefore, shipping companies have made every effort in order to be able to put four-funelled ocean-liners into service…

All right, but exactly what?

1) For example, they designed – or redesigned – their ships (which were still in the design phase) on that way, so that their boiler-arrangement will be as such that 4 funnels must be built in all conditions (the LUSITANIA and MAURETANIA, which originally designed as three-stacker, thus became four).

2) Or they built dummy funnels on their ships (as in the case of the OLYMPIC-class) simply just to have four funnels, in order to gave the impression of strength with them, by making their ship’ appearance more impressive.

Nevertheless the construction of the four-funnelled oceanliners used by competing shipping companies covered a very short period of time, only 25 years from the construction of the KAISER WILHELM der GROSSE in 1897 to the construction of the SS WINDSOR CATLE in 1922. In this quarter of a century, the reason for the use of a larger number of funnels, although in some cases undoubtedly necessary, remained largely symbolic.

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Fig. 19.: The LUSITANIA (and its sister ship, the MAURETANIA) would have been built with three funnels according to the first plans in 1903. (Source: wikihmong.com)

 

However, the power and the prestige of the four funnels (which almost created style and fashion at the beginning of the 20th century) began to decline shortly after the First World War and then quickly disappeared. The flagships of the fleets of the large shipping companies, including the IMPERATOR, NORMANDIE and QUEEN MARY, had only three funnels (and often almost even that was unnecessary, since the size and performance of the boilers increased, so the same performance could be achieved with fewer boilers and funnels). The increase in the efficiency of shipbuilding, and the need to preserve (and possibly increase) the space available to passengers, has eventually led to the fact that oceanliners built in the years before the Second World War were only built with a maximum of two funnels, like in case of the BREMEN and EUROPA, the REX and CONTE di SAVOIA, and the MAURETANIA (II.) and QUEEN ELISABETH. And today's modern passenger ships carry only a single stack uniformly…

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Fig. 20.: Final boiler- and funnel-arrangement of the LUSITANIA (and its sister ship, the MAURETANIA) from 1907. (Source: Illustrated London News, Courtesy of Péter Könczöl.)

 

II.) OLYMPIC-class dummy funnels - is a "dummy" funnel really disfunctional?

Units of the OLYMPIC class originally evoking the outline of the latest ocean liners built before them for the White Star Line (i.e. the "Big Four" - ADRIATIC, BALTIC, CEDRIC and CELTIC), as they would have been four- or three-masted ocean liners, with a superstructure split into several parts and only three (!) funnels. However, according to the first preliminary design which made after the construction of LUSITANIA and MAURETANIA in the summer of 1907, were soon replaced by the designs of a much larger and more elegant four-funnelled ship, he led the combustion products of the boilers to the open air. The R.M.S. OLYMPIC and its two sisterships thus eventually had four recognizable, elegant funnels, the first three of which led the combustion flue of the boilers to the open air.

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Figs. 21., 22. and 23.: Plans of the R.M.S. BALTIC (above), first sketches of the OLYPMIC from 1907 (middle) and view of the ship (below). (Source: Wikimedia, The New York Times, March, 15.1908, Pinterest).

 

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Figs. 24., 25., 26. and 27.: Boiler and funnel arrangement of the OLYMPIC on the final plans of the ship. (Source: Dr. Tamás Balogh.)

 

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Figs. 28., 29. and 30.: Spider-like boiler uptakes for the OLYMPIC-class that conveyed flue gases and soot to the funnel uptakes. The size of these structures that are about to be completed is a good indication of how much space they needed over the boilers (Source: Samuel HalpernParks Stephenson). 

 

A boiler uptakes of 29 shafts, reminiscent of a giant spider, connected to the first three funnels was available for smoke extraction. In contrast, the fourth funnel in the OLYMPIC class (often referred to briefly as a “dummy” funnel) was used for ventilation, ie the fourth funnel was part of the ventilation system, namely it had to be used for the ventilation for the engine room and had to drain the combustion products from the fireplace of the first class smoking room. 

When OLYPMIC's boilers were converted to burn oil instead of coal in the 1920s, a fan was built into the fourth funnel to extract the flammable gases formed in the oil tanks. The fittings and equipment in the funnel were accessible and maintained by means of ladders built inside the funnel, which help for mechanics in cleaning or even in maintainance.

The elliptical cross-section funnels were 24 feet, 6 inches, and 19 feet in diameter, height were 70 feet from the boat deck, 150 feet from the waterline, and had an angle of 11 degrees. Each funnel was held by six-six steel wire (wrapped with rope) from each side, which were attached to rims placed on the reinforced lower part of the black-painted funnel collars. The funnel itself was painted buff, the usual White Star Line livery, except for the top quarter, which was painted black to mask the discoloration caused by soot on the funnel collar.

018019020.jpgFigs. 31., 32. and 33.: TITANIC funnel-arrangement and fourth funnel on the ship's plans (Source: Daily Mail, The Hitory Blog).


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Fig. 34.: The dummy funnel of the OLYMPIC-class did not determined by aesthetics only. The rear funnel served the following functions: 1) ventilated air to/from the ship’s medical compartment, 2) ventilated air to/from the ship’s engine room, 3) ventilated air to/from the 1st and 2nd Class kitchens, 4) and was a chimney for the 1st Class smoking room fireplace. (Source Illustrated London News)

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Figs. 35., 36., 37., 38., 39., 40., and 41.: Above the first three funnels of the OLYMPIC-class liners and the fourth funnel in the middle. The bottom three images were taken from the top of the fourth funnel of the OLYMPIC in the 1920s.

 

III.) Were other ships built with dummy funnels?

That's right! Even not one! As mentioned in the introduction to the study, not all of the 14 four-funnelled liners would have needed four funnels! In fact of the 14 ships, only 11 actually needed four funnels to discharge the combustion products from their boilers.

At the same time, dummy funnels for the White Star Line’s three OLYMPIC-class ships has long been the subject of debate. The German website on the work of the German Shipbuilding Technical Society (Schiffsbautechnische Gesellschaft) from 1901 to 1930, for example, traces the aesthetic debate of the fourth dummy funnel of the OLYMPIC class in 1917 (!).

Why this renowned society of German civil and naval shipbuilding engineers considered this topic important in the third year of the war, and why the abandonment of the fourth funnel still met with fierce resistance after the construction of the first two ships of the three-funnelled IMPERATOR-class, is a mystery.

The translation of the description commemorating the 1917 debate is as follows:

"Prof. Lienau [professor at the Royal Prussian Technical College in Danzig, today Gdansk, Poland], gave a lecture on the fourth funnel of the Olympic / Titanic, which was only a dummy funnel, and then discussed his proposal for another three-funnelled fast steamer, which others strongly opposed it."

 

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Fig. 42.: Otto Lienau's demonstration (Source: Otto Lienau: Schiffbau als Kunst, in.: Jahrbuch der Schiffbautechnischen Gesellschaft, 1918. 328. o., collection of Dr. Tamás Balogh).

 

However, out of the 11 real four-funnelled ocean-going steamers mentioned, 7 (the 4 KAISER-class ships of the German Norddeutscher Lloyd, the DEUTCHLAND of the German HAPAG Line, the ARUNDEL CASTLE and WINDSOR CASTLE of the british Union-Castle Line) only had four funnels just because their plans had been modified such a way, although two funnels would have been enough for them. Funnels that originally served for boilers that actually operate in two boiler rooms were separated per boilers, so instead of one funnel per boiler room they received two funnels (one per boiler), that is, in their case, artificially (not because of technical necessity) four funnels were created.

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Figs. 43. and 44.: WINDSOR CASTLE ocean liner in its original condition and after reconstruction. There was no need for four funnels! (Source: Wikipedia)

 

2 ships out of 11 (the LUSITANIA and MAURETANIA of the British Cunard Line), only three funnels were originally designed in the same way as the first plans of the OLYMPIC-class, and only due to the success of the German four-stackers - so only for advertising reasons - they decided to change the plans and order four-funnelled ocean liners. All in all, therefore, only 2 of the 14 vessels actually and indisputably had four funnels from the very first stage of design: in case of AQUITANIA of the Cunard Line and FRANCE (II) of the Compaigne Générale Transatlantique ('Transat'), although the real four-funnelled nature of the latter is debatable given the boiler arrangement.

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Figs. 45. and 46.: Longitudinal section of the only real four-stackers, the AQUITANIA (above) and the FRANCE (II.). (Source: Dr. Tamás Balogh)

 

Moreover, the ships of the OLYMPIC-class were not only unique among their four-funelled contemporaries in the use of dummy funnels: the famous German Ballin Trio, the three-funnelled ships of the IMPERATOR-class, also had a dummy funnel at the rear. This was the case with the sister ships CAP POLONIO and CAP TRAFFALGAR of the Hamburg-Süd Line, or the STRATHNAVER of the Peninsular and Orient Line (P&O), the ILE de FRANCE and NORMANDIE of the CGT, the EMPRESS of BRITAIN of the Canadian Pacific Line, or BRITANNIC (III.) of the WSL and AMERICA of the US Lines, and we could continue. What's more! In case of Cunard Line's two-stacker sister ships of ANDRIA and ALSATIA in the 1950s (!), the first funnel was a dummy funnel as well. This means that then - even after the design-revolution, the constructivism, and the functionalism - it was a common feeling that to seem bigger, is better.

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Fig. 47.: On ships in the IMPERATOR-class, the rear funnel (although the ships had “only” three funnels) was also a dummy. (Source: Dr. Tamás Balogh)

 

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Fig. 48.: And when there are already just two funnels, but they are also too many: AMERICA and its dummy-funnel (this time the first). (Source: Dr. Tamás Balogh)

 

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Figs. 49. and 50.: BRITANNIC (III.) above and her sister GEORGIC (below). GEORGIC originally also had two funnels, but it was converted to a single-stacker by removing the forward dummy-funnel in World War II. (Source: Wikipedia)

 

So, using parts (by neglect of material- and cost-saving) which were completely unnecessary for technical reasons, just for the sake of appearance (purely for design, or optical purposes), was a common thing for a long time.

Perhaps one of the most extraordinary of these items was the third funnel of the NORMANDIE, which, however, was not a completely inoperable piece: the kennel for the dogs of the passengers were placed in it. The dog kennel was a place surrounded by stainless steel bars, in the middle of which was an drinking fountain for the animals in an oval space. The kennels were steam-heated, ventilated rooms with fresh litter and straw waiting for the animals daily. Allowed daily exercise for the dogs was provided on the upper deck around the funnel base. Of course, rescue equipment was also provided for the dogs in puppy, large and medium sizes, and a special daily menu was printed in French (offering a variety of bones, soups, biscuits and vegetables). A separate veterinarian was also available on board if required.

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Figs. 51.: Dog Kennels, located inside the third - dummy - funnel of NORMANDIE (Source: Popular Mechanics, August, 1939.)

 

IV.) Under the spell of funnels:

Designer of the GREAT EASTERN,the  French-born British engineer genius Isambard Kingdom Brunnel once responded to accusations connected to his liner-plans (according to that building a ship of such a huge size is uneconomical and unnecessary) that “the bigger is better”.

His idea hadn't been approved for nearly 40 years, but now we know that he was right. He is not wanted that his ships won the title of the largest sea-going steamers for selfish purposes. These ships had been built so big only for they could take on board the amount of coal needed to cross the ocean without refueling. They had to be large in the first place, and many passengers had to be accommodated to make their journeys profitable.

Incidentally, the large size was accompanied by stability, seaworthiness, which was of great value to passengers who wanted to cross safely (even if, as is well known, all pioneers had a hard time, so the handling of Brunnel’s vast and unprecedented ocean liners was not an easy task either, and the necessarily untrained crew certainly caused many accidents).

Still, the “mania for size” brought to life by talented or just untalented engineers trying to follow Brunnel, continues to this day. An interesting side effect of this was the attraction to multi-funnelled ocean-going vessels, as the epitome of safety, speed and power, which was initially embodied in the construction of the four-stackers, but we also know of a case where designers flirted with the idea of installing even more funnels…

The following are manifestations of this strange mania for size (presenting three unrealized oceanliner plans, which were partly intended as a joke):

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Figs. 52.: Concept of Jochann Schütte for the KAISER WILHELM II. in 1902. (Source: Pinterest)

 

The success of the first fourstacker oceanliners (the KAISER WILHELM der GROSSE and its sistership, KRONPRINZ WILHELM, and the rival DEUTSCHLAND) prompted the shipping company Norddeutscher Lloyd, to build new, larger and faster ones.

Answering the order of the company, in 1900, several designers prepared a design proposal for the new ships (later KAISER WILHELM II and its sister ship, KRONPRINZESSIN CECILIE). Jochann Schütte's project to upgrading the KAISER-class stood out from the rest by he had now installed even five (!) funnels on the upper deck, instead of the previous four.

His plans contained nothing new in other respects, only in that the German engineer gave the hull of his ship the shape of the warships, more precisely the stern of the cruisers - perhaps as a result of the universal interest in warship-building (which was booming at the time and was also of great concern to the public, and the patriotic sentiments centered around it).

This is all the more remarkable because the so-called cruiser-stern began to spread on ocean liners only about ten years later, but only gained popularity in the 1930s following the success of the largest liner built with cruiser stern, the QUEEN MARY.

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Figs. 53.: Concept of William Francis Gibbs for the INDPENDENCE in 1915. (Source: The New York Times, August 3. 1919.)

 

The background of this situation is well highlighted by the third example is a funny mirror in front of all car-crazy people, which is nothing more than a caricature made by a German photographer in the 1920s as a prank for April 1st. Using a picture of VATERLAND (US-owned LEVIATHAN) confiscated from the Germans, he created a photomontage of a ten-funnelled limousine oceanliner – the imaginary PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT – as a reference to the contemporary enthusiasm for vast dimensions.

 

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Figs. 54.: The German caricature-photo. (Source)


Sources:

http://magnificenttitanic.tumblr.com/page/32

http://www.copperas.com/titanic/boiler.htm

http://www.titanic-theshipmagnificent.com/synopsis/chapter15/

http://de.academic.ru/dic.nsf/technik/19532/Schiffskessel

http://www.sterling.rmplc.co.uk/visions/pwrtr.html

http://www.oshermaps.org/search/zoom.php?no=2001046.0003#img2

http://wesworld.jk-clan.de/thread.php?postid=102467

https://fbcdn-sphotos-b-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-prn2/1377371_741929022491100_634000637_n.jpg

 

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